|Russian Revolutions (standard:other, 624 words)|
|Author: Natalia||Added: Sep 24 2002||Views/Reads: 2535/1||Story vote: 0.00 (0 votes)|
|Russian Revlutions from 1881 to 1917|
In 1894, Nicholas II became Tsar of Russia, launching a programme of building Russia's industry. Russia quickly became a leading producer of steel in the world, but at a price. Working conditions were poor, wages were low and children were forced to work, prompting opposition from what were soon to become revolutionary groups. Some followed the ideals put forward by Karl Marx and in 1903 they began to argue about how to carry out their revolution and they split into two groups. One, called the Bolsheviks was led by Vladmir Lenin, who fled to Russia a few years later to await a better time to put forward his ideas. The Russo-Japanese war, which started in 1904, accelerated the rise of political movements who were against the totalitarianism police state that was in place in Russia at the time. In early 1905, Father Georgii Gapon, a Russian Orthodox priest who headed a police-sponsored worker's association, led a huge, peaceful march in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. Nervous troops responded with gunfire, killing several hundred people, and thus the Revolution of 1905 began. Known as Bloody Sunday, the 1905 revolution prompted Nicholas II to face the issue of increasing amounts of Bolshevik-led soviets being created in the country, over 50 in just a few weeks. The Chief Minister Witte advised the Tsar to make concessions, which he did in his October Manifesto. This granted freedom of conscience, speech, meeting and association. He also promised that in future people would not be imprisoned without trial. Finally he announced that no law would become operative without the approval of a new organisation called the Duma. In 1864, the previous Tsar, Alexander III allowed each district of Russia to set up Zemstvos, local councils with the power to provide roads, schools and medical services, although the election of representatives was restricted only to the wealthy. At first they were only responsible for the education of peasants, but after the First World War, they gradually took over the feeding and clothing of the Russian army. However, although Russia had one of the largest armies in the world, the system could not supply the armies with the equipment they needed to fight a modern war. By 1917 over 1 million soldiers had died, 4 million wounded and over 2 and a half million captured by the enemy. This also acted as an accelerate to the uprising of rebellious movements and in January 1917 General Krimov of the army sought an audience with Michael Rodzianko, President of the Duma. Krimov told Rodzianko that the officers and men no longer had faith in Nicholas II and the army was willing to support the Duma if it took control of the government of Russia. Rodzianko was unwilling to take action but he did telegraph the Tsar warning that Russia was approaching breaking point. The First World War had a disastrous impact on the Russian economy. Food was in short supply and this led to rising prices. By January 1917 the price of commodities in Petrograd had increased six-fold. In an attempt to increase their wages, industrial workers went on strike and in Petrograd people took to the street demanding food. On 11th February, 1917, a large crowd marched through the streets of Petrograd breaking shop windows and shouting anti-war slogans. The situation deteriorated on 22nd February when the owners of the Putilov Iron Works locked out its workforce after they demanded higher wages. Led by Bolshevik agitators, the 20,000 workers took to the streets. The army was ordered to disperse the demonstrations but they were unwilling to do this and in some cases the soldiers joined the protestors in demanding an end to the war. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:MImorsKNJJEC:mclane.fresno.k12.ca.u s/mwh/C/MH14C057.PDF+nationalism+1900-1939&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 http://www.russiananalitica.com/analitica/0201/003.shtml http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/romeo/russia1917feb.htm http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSduma.htm Tweet
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